Carbon footprint over life cycle (kg CO2e / m3 building material) for various common building materials. Address: Adam Smithweg 2, 1689 ZW Zwaag, the Netherlands, The publication of this report was supported by MOSO International BV, International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), © 2015 INBAR - International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, 3. “We don't see viscose as an inherently unsustainable fibre,” says Trunk. It also assesses the emissions generated in major processing stage and provides recommendations for emission reduction. We quantified the effects of N deposition on biomass increment, soil organic carbon (SOC), and N 2 O and CH 4 fluxes and, ultimately, the net GHG budget at ecosystem level of a Moso bamboo forest in China. However, the biodiversity of the areas where Guadua grows (Colombia, Ecuador) is two and a. bamboo products (unless reforestation with Guadua takes place on degraded lands). attened bamboo boards are clearly the best choice from an environmental point of view. Carbon Dioxide Balance of Wood Substitution: Comparing Concrete- and Wood-Framed Buildings. 120 pp. this is not the case and the below ground carbon stock remains. In a managed bamboo, forest, where harvested bamboo is converted into durable bamboo products, a significantly higher. 61% in type I, 23. The greatest disadvantage of harvesting hardwood. Agriculture in Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. With its whole‐genome information released, genetic manipulations of moso bamboo offer tremendous potential to meet the industrial expectations either in quality or in quantity. Mechanical - bamboo is crushed and the plant’s natural enzymes break it down into fibres. Sustainable goals for contemporary world seek viable solutions for interconnected challenges, particularly in the fields of food and energy security and climate change. Although the e, i.e. These include timber, fiber, biofuel, paper, food, and medicinal industries. In the total carbon storage of the forest, bamboo layer occupied 32. Silvics manuals. It’s no secret that something drastic needs to be done with the way we produce and consume clothes. Green programme of the Chinese government. We spoke to Urska Trunk from European campaign, Dirty Fashion, who has been investigating some of the biggest viscose producers in India, Indonesia and China. European oak and the softwood species Scandinavian Scots pine, North American western red cedar and, Figure 25 shows that industrial bamboo materials, they compete in terms of material properties), especially in the case of strand woven bamboo and. Figure 19. All rights reserved. http://www.environdec.com/) which are increasingly mandatory in sustainable building. However, this method results in an, K_\\]]\Zkjf]ZXiYfej\hl\jkiXk`feXkk_\^cfYXcjpjk\dc\m\c, Tier 1 and Tier 2 approach of the Intergovernmental. Bamboo has a fibrous root system that is shallow and capable of holding 200 – 400 mm of rain water. Patterns of modelled aggregated carbon accumulation of newly established Moso bamboo -, no harvest scenario - and Chinese fir plantations (Kuehl et al, 2013), However, if the Moso bamboo forest is unmanaged and not harvested, e.g. bamboo - regular harvest scenario - and Chinese fir plantations over 60 years. Cardboard that had been buried in landfill for 20 years had a carbon loss of 27.3%—indicating that environmental conditions in the landfill did not support complete decomposition of the available carbon. In addition, a more robust method for estimation of national HWP stocks is presented, based on direct inventory of building stock. The mother plant consists of many stems connected through, Due to its extensive root system, bamboo can be planted, Another important advantage of bamboo is that its fast growth results in a high annual yield. However, there is some skepticism surrounding how bamboo is grown. Ball, FAO (2010). markets of the bamboo stem will be marginal. BSI: London. This is due to its shorter. production process and higher density, resulting in lower energy consumption per kg material. The motivation for such replacement is typically cost—bamboo is readily available in many tropical and sub-tropical locations, whereas steel reinforcement is relatively more expensive—and more recently, the drive to find more sustainable alternatives in the construction industry. Nitrogen addition increased CO 2 uptake more than non-CO 2 greenhouse gases emissions in a Moso bamboo forest, The Opportunities and Challenges of Using Parametric Architectural Design Tools to Design with Full-Culm Bamboo: Case Study: A Design for a Hyperbolic Paraboloid for Gutter-Less Rainwater Capture Using Full-Culm Bamboo, Environmental Durability Enhancement of Natural Fibres Using Plastination: A Feasibility Investigation on Bamboo, Ximenes et al-2018-Carbon Balance and Management, Carbon dynamics of paper, engineered wood products and bamboo in landfills: Evidence from reactor studies, Bamboo, Its Chemical Modification and Products, INBAR Working Paper Technical Paper Life Cycle Assessment for Key Bamboo Products in Viet Nam, Genetics and genomics of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis ): Current status, future challenges, and biotechnological opportunities toward a sustainable bamboo industry, Bamboo reinforced concrete: a critical review, Bamboo: Potential resource for eco-restoration of degraded lands, Mapping opportunities for forest landscape restoration, Bamboo: The opportunities for forest and landscape restoration, Industry. Home Bamboo Agriculture The Top Ten Reasons Why Bamboo can Save the Planet The Top Ten Reasons Why Bamboo can Save the Planet. Gustavsson, L., Pingoud, K., et al. 91 t • hm-2, 2.59, 3.01, and 4. Moreover, due to the extensive root system, bamboo, for erosion prevention and for rehabilitating degraded land and re-establishing functioning. The article assesses the current UK waste infrastructure's ability to support a low-carbon bio-based future economy, and finds that presently it only achieves marginal net reductions when compared to landfill and so cannot be said to support low-carbon biomaterials, though the article challenges the polluter pays principle where low-carbon disposal infrastructure are not available. D Dissertation. Conclusions Rainforest Alliance, CONAP, Wildlife Conservation Society. glue is required than for plybamboo and strand woven bamboo. https://www.iea.org/techno/essentials3.pdf. The LCA also reveals how each step of the production process e " ects the overall environmental impact of the product. More information about EPD. Local and Western European Applications. & Somogyi, Z. China (2010). and increasing sustainable wood production, the total volume of wood in buildings has increased. This report analyses the work carried out to date to explore different aspects of bamboo's growth, management and use which impact bamboo's carbon sequestration potential. See Figure 13. general, veneer has a relatively high environmental impact. The total net carbon benefits induced by atmospheric N deposition at current rates of 30 kilograms of N hectare ⁻¹ year ⁻¹ over Moso bamboo forests across China were estimated to be of 23.8 teragrams of CO 2 equivalent year ⁻¹ . 88 t • hm-2, and 150.64, 197.36, and 232. All photos are copyright MOSO International and/or INBAR. There are several reasons why this is the case: root system, bamboo stores more CO2 under ground as in the surrounding soil. Eco-costs (20ft container in a transoceanic, layers of 5 mm plain pressed on the outside, and one layer of 10 mm side pressed in the core). This report considers both above components, but it focuses on impact 1) and specifically on the approaches and methods for estimating the balance of wood-based carbon in HWP. Thus, Bamboo is a Good scavenger crop to clean the Sewage / ETP water at a low cost and adding environmental benefit such as reduction in temperature, increase in … worldwide – depending on the production scenario. One kg d.m. 1997; Wootton 2012). In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. where each part of the bamboo stem is utilized for various industries (engineered panels, chopsticks, blinds, food, charcoal, etc). demonstrating the need to harmonize the measurement of carbon density across di, Asia, Africa and the Americas, but recent research, The results indicate that if Moso bamboo, for processing losses in transformation to industrial bamboo and wood products. Since the cradle-to-gate assessment excludes relevant use-phase and end-of-life related aspects, the second part of this study takes the production results as input for an assessment of the full life cycle (cradle-to-grave) with the bearing structure of a typical pedestrian bridge as fair unit of comparison for all material alternatives. The model requires as basic input data the production and international trade rates of HWP, provided worldwide and since 1961 by the FAO database, which is easily accessible through the internet. )Calculation)of)carbon)sequestration)in)forests)and)buildings), 6. Figure 11. A review of the Chinese online fashion giant from the perspective of a slow-fashion writer. Although it’s tough like wood, it’s actually a type of grass and some species can grow by over a metre a day. bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens), which. is a commonly used methodology in which the greenhouse gas, is an element of the LCA, which involves the development of an inventory of. Strand woven bamboo beams are made by compressing rough bamboo. above- ground biomass. A, B and C scenarios; all percentages related to harvestable standing volume (100%), taken from van der Lugt (2008). For more information about MOSO International please visit www.moso.eu. Because of the hardness, the material is ideally, of 3,5%) and compression, this product (brandname "Bamboo X-treme") has an even. “So the factories that have really old technology will need support from their clients, their investors and so on to move forward.”. In contrast to a carbon footprint, assessment, LCA is based on several environmental indicators which, besides the Global Warming, Life Cycle Analysis (also known as Life Cycle Assessment) is a means of systematically assessing the, (“cradle to grave”). Interpretation - the results are reported in the most informative way and the need and. One kg d.m. & Smith, P. (2006). This is a plausible assumption since a large portion of the. To gain a better understanding of the difference in greenhouse gas emissions of acetylated scots pine, tropical hardwood (azobe) and non-renewable materials (steel, concrete), this study first presents the emissions in terms of kg CO2 equivalent based on a cradle-to-gate scenario. Cotton requires 2,700 litres of water to produce one t-shirt, takes more labour to produce, and needs pesticides, according ethical fashion gurus at Good On You. Commercial bamboo plantations can help to achieve the international restoration goals by using degraded and deforested land to restore critical ecosystem functions, while producing a sustainable source of fiber. 28(8): 1482-1488. Most countries have suffered forest loss or degradation. Methods “It's a combination of small players and takes investment to bring technology up to standard,” says Trunk. Bamboo: Eco-friendly fabric or environmental disaster? In estimation and reporting GHG emissions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), countries do in principle report all their fossil carbon emissions (including those of HWP lifecycle), whereas reporting principles of carbon balance in HWP, impact 1), is still open. But producers need the backing from their brands to do this. This prevents bacteria and microbes growing on bamboo products making it the perfect plant for naturally hygienic products such as bamboo straws … This phenomenon is known as the substitution approach in, Note: the text in this chapter is largely taken from Section 4 of Vogtländer et al. Sustaining Conservation Values in. 2014, Rebelo and Buckingham 2015). The site studied is intensively managed with one-third of the aboveground biomass being removed by thinning each 2 years, thus leaving tree cohorts younger than 4 years. life cycle of a product can be measured in terms of their kg CO2 equivalent (CO2e). BV, the distance to the manufacturing site for laminated bamboo boards was 300 km. For more information please visit www.io.tudelft.nl. & Brezet J.C (2009a). Some of these textiles are produced using bamboo fibres, and in some instances, the fabric only needs to be 10 per cent organic bamboo in order for it to be labelled as ‘made with organic materials’. This report presents the results of a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis of a selection of industrial A factor for carbon loss for combined EWPs and wood in landfills in Australia of 1.3% and for paper of 48% is proposed. Even if the bamboo in your clothes was responsibly grown and harvested, there are more bumps along the road when it comes to the manufacturing process. Although engineered wood products (EWPs) and paper represent a substantial component of the solid waste stream, there is limited information available on their carbon dynamics in landfills. and the ILCD handbook. use and end-of-life phases, thus throughout its full life cycle. kg d.m. Carbon sequestration per year by regrowth of forests on the Northern Hemisphere (Europe, Intensifying the use of forests in the Northern Hemisphere through better management, Final processing: Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, and Jianyang, Nanping county, Fujian, The product is shipped via Shanghai and Rotterdam to the warehouse of MOSO International, Note: a cogeneration plant for electricity and heat is an opportunity for the future that could reduce, EURO 3 refers to the European Emission Standard for vehicles as of 2000. Note that for fast moving consumer goods in, For more information see http://www.wri.org/blog/2014/12/rebranding-bamboo-bonn-5-million-hectare-restoration-pledge. 2006). Bamboo kun is found in bamboo fibre and is an antimicrobial bio-agent which gives bamboo its natural antibacterial properties. Bamboo has over 10, 000 uses, and more are added every year, Sequestration – the capture and storage of, clarify some of the issues around this complex topic, including, :XiYfej\hl\jkiXk`feXkk_\gif[lZkc\m\c. Is a fake Christmas tree better for the environment than a real one. on an eroded slope), and its root structure remains intact after harvest, thus, generating new shoots, The development of a monetized single indicator in SLCA (for textiles, mining of metals et cetera), The carbon footprint (CF) of biofuels and biomaterials is a barrier to their acceptance, yet the greenhouse gas emissions associated with disposing of biomaterials are frequently omitted from analyses. (e.g. Markets for Bamboo Products in the West. Using modeling and comparison studies, the findings of this report suggest that bamboo's carbon sequestration rate can equal or surpasses that of fast-growth trees over short time periods in a new plantation, but only when bamboo is actively managed. & Zagt, R. (2012). The bamboos of different ages had significant differences in the carbon densities of stem, branch, leaf, and root (P <0. Cycle Greenhouse Gas emissions of Goods and Services. In the High Density and strand woven bamboo styles, the bamboo nodes are hardly visible. There has been growing interest in the development of waste-specific decay factors for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfills in national greenhouse gas inventories. But at the end of the day, Trunk says that the consumer holds the purchasing power, and they can use this to put pressure on brands who aren’t producing responsibly. The annual carbon fixation was in the order of type I > type II > type III, and was the highest (56. sequestration of 1,61 x 0,05 = 0,081 kg CO2 per kg d.m. the world’s ecological footprint is 1,5 times the amount of required resources the Earth can produce. Global Planted Forests Thematic Study: Results and Analysis, by A. Del Lungo, J. Um relexo local dessa tendência mundial, o presente trabalho visa explorar as possibilidades que o bambu, como matéria-prima da construção civil, oferece ao nordeste brasileiro. Trends in carbon storage in forests from 1990-2010 (Source: FAO 2010), Higher demand for tropical hardwood leads to deforestation and less carbon sequestration, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Pablo van der Lugt, All content in this area was uploaded by Pablo van der Lugt on Nov 17, 2016, Life%Cycle*Assessment*and*Carbon*Sequestration, International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, organization bringing together some 41 countries for the promotion of the ecosystem. of. From a, land, short establishment time, etc. Tropenbos International: Wageningen, the Netherlands. According to the UN, garment production uses more energy than the aviation and shipping industries combined, and accounts for 10 per cent of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, the. in bamboo biomass (forests and products). attened bamboo, 2,5% for plybamboo, 3,5% for indoor SWB and 6,2% for outdoor SWB), this results in: 0,975 x 0,9 x 0,5 x 3,67 = 1,61 kg biogenic CO2 storage in the buildings per one kg d.m. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Zhou G., Shi Y., Lou Y., Li J., Kuehl, Y., Chen, J., Ma, G., He Y., Wang X. and Yu T. (2013). As shown in Step 3, there has been a large growth of. This assessment method was developed to quantify the material use, energy use, and environmental impact associated with specific products, services, and technologies. The main questions are: how do these proposals relate to each other, to what extent are they in line with the classical LCA method (as defined in ISO 14044) and the global mass balances as, In the global climate agreements made during COP 21 in Paris, the role of forests and wood products have gained more attention considering their important impact – both negative and positive – through deforestation, forest conservation, afforestation and increasing application of wood in durable (construction) products acting as carbon sink. 74, 64.30, and 55. A. Other forms of environmental impact associated with timber products are due to the transportation of timber products (Lindholm and Berg 2005), use of chemicals, and wood wastage (Jurgensen et al. Website Chinese State Forestry. Background The authors conclude that, although bamboo is a material with extraordinary mechanical properties, its use in bamboo-reinforced concrete is an ill-considered concept, having significant durability, strength and stiffness issues, and does not meet the environmentally friendly credentials often attributed to it. (2014). Trunk says a solution already exists, but it needs to be implemented more widely. board (consisting of two layers of 5 mm plain pressed at the outsides, and one layer of 10 mm side pressed in the core). 25% in type I, 75. Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M. & Miller, H.L. land that offer opportunities for restoration. of indoor strand woven bamboo. Delft University of Technology. in electrical power plants. The report provides a comprehensive explanation how such a calculation on carbon sequestration must be made within the general logic of the LCA methodology (and the general logic in science), since there is a lot of confusion regarding this issue. Typical barren grassland being prepared for rehabilitation with bamboo. estimation of carbon sequestration in the durable products pool, please refer to the section below. frames) this would result in a large carbon sequestration gain through substitution. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60, 0 5 10 15 20 25 30, durable products pool in buildings (step 4), which theoretically could be taken into account as an, additional carbon stock worth valueing in carbon accounting, Working Paper 73 (Zhou et al. The NGO has set out strict guidance for growing bamboo responsibly. IEA (2007). China. natural forest protection of the Chinese State Forestry Administration (CSF 2013). For more information, please visit www.inbar.int. O interesse crescente pelo tema da sustentabilidade, frente aos problemas ambientais causados pela humanidade, somado ao instinto de cada geração de adaptar a estética de sua arquitetura ao zeitgeist, geram uma demanda para a revisão das práticas construtivas hegemônicas. Jk\g+%:XcZlcXk`e^k_\X[[`k`feXcjkfi\[ZXiYfe`eYl`c[`e^j%, bamboo. plybamboo is related to 4,25x3,1=, One kg d.m. international bamboo and rattan trade and standards. Between harvesting and wearing it, the end product isn’t always that natural. the credits through carbon sequestration and energy production in the end-of-life phase in an electrical power plant outweigh the emissions caused by production and transport. Bamboo. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of carbon loss for EWPs and paper products commonly used in Australia. )Results:)Tables)on)combined)cradle@to@grave)calculations,), The)potential)of)bamboo)for)climate)change)mitigation. See the three scenarios for Meranti (plantation. As Boohoo faces an investigation into its factories, we consider the alternatives to fast fashion. , 295(1): pp 81-90. improving soil quality and restoring the water table (Kuehl and Lou Yping 2011). approach, we look at vast forest areas (e.g. Carbon footprint: 0,779 kg CO2 per kg of bamboo waste; Carbon footprint: 0,779 x 0,9 = 0,70 kg CO2 per kg of bamboo product (MC 12%); Eco-costs: 0,145 x 0,9 = 0,131 euro eco-costs per kg of bamboo product (MC 12%). Carbon footprint over life cycle (CO2e / kg product). bamboo products are increasingly perceived as “green” and environmentally friendly, Jg\Z`]`ZY\e\]`kjf]ZXiip`e^flkC:8jfeYXdYffgif[lZkj, purchasing and usage decisions. Forests: New York Declaration on Forests Action Statements and Action Plans, Enhancing the Trade of Legally Produced Timber - A Guide to. opportunities to reduce the impact on the environment are evaluated. leading to better forest management and an increase in bamboo forest area (Lou Yiping et al. In order to make fabric out of bamboo, the plant is turned into pulp which is then made into fibres. The calculations are based on the production. It can grow in areas that are currently non-productive (e.g. It’s the prize jewel for so many sustainable fashion companies, the enemy of sustainability auditors, and the most confusing fabric for shoppers trying to do their damn best. Environmental Impact of Products (EIPRO) Preface In June 2003 the European Commission adopted a Communication on an integrated product policy (IPP) aiming to reduce the environmental impacts of products, where possible by using a market-driven approach that combines competitiveness with social concerns. Figure 25. Bamboo is one of the best Eco-frindly product in world, It cleans the environment and no pollution. The Environmental Impact of Industrial Bamboo Products: … This report gives a Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) and carbon footprint analysis on a selection of industrial bamboo products. 43% in type II and 17. 2011). Bamboo, a Sustainable Solution for Western. The primary difference amongst these products is the dimensions and product weight. Figure 12. One suggestion is that choosing to grow it on degraded lands rather than clearing forests can have a positive impact. Greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of wood and paper products, in the following referred as harvested wood products (HWP), is twofold: 1) HWP form a renewable pool of wood-based carbon, whose changes act as carbon sink or source, 2) manufacture and whole lifecycle of HWP cause fossil carbon emissions. results of Steps 1, 2, 3 and adding the results of Step 4: These amounts can be allocated as credit in the LCA calculation. 5. Figure 13 gives a good indication of how the various bamboo, Bamboo walls, doors and window frames in an o. manufactured using different production technologies (SWB = Strand Woven Bamboo). Van der ... plus the end-of-life stages of the bamboo products. This comes in addition to a set of targets to safely treat waste water and prevent gas emissions coming out of factories. (e.g., recycling waste) this might also be the case for plain pressed caramel veneer. wood products, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.